Leonardus Par


This study aims to explore the difference
between the field independent (FI) and field dependent
(FD) learners in the area of EFL critical reading skills. To
this end, 60 undergraduate EFL students who had taken
and passed the Critical Reading course involved as the
subjects. The Group Embedded Figure Test (GEFT) was
administered to classify the students’ cognitive styles into
FI and FD groups. Furthermore, to measure the students’
critical reading skills, the critical reading comprehension
test (CRCT) in the form of multiple choice questions was
developed and administered. The test items were focused
on assessing students’ analytical and inferential skills of
reading texts, specifically on determining the main idea,
the purpose, the tone, making an inference and taking
conclusion. The findings indicate that there is a
statistically significant difference in the critical reading
skills between FI and FD students. More specifically, the
differences are in determining the main idea, determining
the purpose, making an inference, and taking the
conclusion of the texts in the CRCT. Pedagogically,
selecting appropriate reading texts to be used in Critical
Reading course practice for developing the students’
critical reading skills will be beneficial for both of FI and
FD students.


critical reading, cognitive styles, field independent students, field dependent students

Full Text:



Alqatanani, A. K. (2017). Do Multiple Intelligences Improve EFL Students’ Critical Reading Skills? Arab World English Journal, 8 (1): 309-321. Doi:

Attaprechakul, D. (2013). Inference Strategies to Improve Reading Comprehension of Challenging Texts. English Language Teaching, 6 (3): 82-91. Doi:

Bowen, J. D., Madsen, H. & Hilferty, A. (1985). TESOL: Techniques and Procedures. Cambridge: Newbury House.

Brown, D. H. (2007). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching (5th edn.). New Yor: Pearson Education

Burns, P. C., Roe, B. D. & Ross, E. P. (1996). Teaching Reading in Today’s Elementary School, 6th Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Camp, D. V. & Camp, W. V. (2013). Using Content Reading Assignment in a Psychology Course to Teach Critical Reading Skills. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 13 (1): 86-99. Retrieve from EJ1011690. pdf

Crawley, S. J., & Mountian, L. (1995). Strategies for Guiding Content Reading. Boston: Allyo and Bacon

Dornyei, Z. (2005). The Psychology of the Language Learner: Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Douglas, N. L. (2000). Enemies of critical thinking: Lessons from Social Psychology Research. Reading Psychology, 21, 129–144

Eanes, R. (1997). Content Area Literacy: Teaching for Today and Tomorrow. New York: Delmar Publishers.

Ellozy, A. R. & Mostafa, H. M. H. (2010). Making Learning Visible: Using E-maps to Enhance Critical Reading Skills. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 6 (3): 634-646. Retrieve from

Hong, M. & Zhiyuan, P. (2014). Is Critical Reading Indispensible to College English for General Purpose in China? CSCanada Cross-Cultural Communication, 10 (3): 77-83. Doi: 10.3968/4562

Icmez, S. (2009). Motivation and Critical Reading in EFL Classrooms: A Case of ELT Preparatory Students. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 5 (2): 123-147. Retrieve from

Johnson, J., Prior, S., & Artuso, M. (2000). Field Dependence as a Factor in Second Language Communicative Production. Language Learning, 50 (3): 529-567. Doi:10.1111/0023-8333.00137

Karabay, A. (2015). The Guiding Effects of a Critical Reading Program on the Use of External Reading Strategies when Confronting an Ironical Text. Educational Research Review, 10, 2297-2304. Doi:

Karadag, R. (2014). Primary School Teacher Candidate’s Views towards Critical Reading Skills and Perceptions of Their Competence. Procedia, Social and Behavioral Sciences, 152: 889-896. Doi:

Khatib, M. & Hosseinpur, R. M. (2011). On the Validity of the Group Embedded Figure Test. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2 (3): 640-648. Doi: 10.4304/jltr.2.3.640-648

Khodary, M. M. & Abdallah, M. M. (2014). Using a WebQuest Model to Develop Critical Reading Achievement among Languages and Translation Department Students at Arar College of Education and Arts. International Interdisciplinary Journal of Education, 3 (1): 246-256. Doi: 10.12816/0007416

Kobayashi, K. (2007). The Influence of Critical Reading Orientation on External Strategy Use during Expository Text Reading. Educational Psychology, 27 (3): 363–375. Doi:

Lisa, B. (2008). “I Don’t Teach Reading”: Critical Reading Instruction in Composition Courses. Literacy Research and Instruction, 47 (4): 285-308. Doi: 10.1080/19388070802332861

Nozari, A. Y. & Siamian, H. (2014). The Relationship between Field Dependent-Independent Cognitive Style and Understanding of English Text Reading and Academic Success. Mater Sociomed, 27 (1): 39-41. Doi: 10.5455/msm.2014.27.39-41

Ruddell, R. B.& Unrau, N. J. (2013). Reading as a Motivated Meaning-Construction Process: The reader, the Text, and the Teacher. In D. E. Alvermann, N. K. Unrau, & R. B. Ruddell (Eds.) Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading (6th Ed.) (pp. 1015-1068). Newark: International Reading Association.

Saracho, O. N. (1997). Teachers’ and Students’ Cognitive Styles in Early Childhood Education. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group

Sultan, Rofiuddin, A., Nurhadi, & Prihatni, E. T. (2017). The Effect of the Critical Literacy Approach on Pre-service Language Teachers’ Critical Reading Skills. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 71: 159-174. Retrieve from /fulltext/EJ1158392.pdf

Sunggingwati, D. & Nguyen, H. T. M. (2013). Teachers’ Questioning in Reading Lessons: A Case Study in Indonesia. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 10 (1): 80-95. Retrieve from

Tomasek, T. (2009). Critical Reading: Using Reading Prompts to Promote Active Engagement with Text. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 21 (1): 127-132. Retrieve from

Tsai, P., Chen, S., Chang, H., Chang, W. (2013). Effect of Prompting Critical Reading of Science News on Seventh Graders’ Cognitive Development. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 8 (1): 85-107.

Walz, Joel. (2001). Critical Reading and the Internet. The French Review, 74 (6): 1193-1205. Retrieve from stable/ 399838

Wang, D. (2009). Factors Affecting the Comprehension of Global and Local Main Idea. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 39 (2): 34-52. Retrieve from

Witkin, H.A., Moore, C.A., Goodenough, D. R. & Cox, P.W. (1977). Field-Dependent and Field-Independent Cognitive Styles and Their Educational Implications. Review of Educational Research, 47 (1): 1-64. Doi: 10.1002/j.2333-8504.1975.tb01065.x

Zin, Z. M. & Eng, W. B. (2014). Relationship Between Critical Thinking Dispositions and Critical Reading Skills of Malaysian ESL Learners. The Asian EFL Journal Quarterly, 16 (3): 41-68. Retrieve from quarterly-journal/relationship-between-critical-thinking-dispositions-and-critical-reading-skills-of-malaysian-esl-learners/#squelch-taas-tab-content-0-3

Zin, Z. M., Eng, B. E. & Rafik-Galea, S. (2014). Critical Reading Ability and Its Relation to L2 Proficiency of Malaysian ESL Learners. The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies, 20 (2): 43-54. Doi:



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
JEELS by IAIN Kediri is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at

View My Stats

Indexed in:

Flag Counter