Moh. Arif Mahbub


This research investigates the vocational school students’ needs on the implementation of English teaching and learning that is focused on the target needs and learning needs. By adapting Hutchinson and Waters’ model (1987), questionnaire consisting of parts A and B was administered to 32 students. Part A deals with the target needs centred on the learner’s necessities, lacks and wants that are effectively functioned in the target situation. In contrast, part B concerns about learning needs that encompass learning inputs, procedures, teacher’s and learners’ role, and setting. Additionally, interviews were also conducted with the students and an English teacher to gather data in order to examine in-depth results of the practices of English teaching and to uncover possible areas of students’ language difficulties in learning English. The results suggested that the students have different perceptions of their necessities, wants, and lacks. The findings also demonstrated the students’ learning needs including
the learning inputs, teaching-learning procedures, the teacher’s and learners’ role, as well as the teachinglearning settings.


ESP, Need Analysis, Target Needs, Learning Needs.

Full Text:



Abdalla, S., & Mohammed, H. (2016). Investigating the Application of Needs Analysis on EAP Business Administration Materials. English Language Teaching, 9(3), 74–79. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v9n3p74

Akyel, A. S., & Ozek, Y. (2010). A Language Needs Analysis Research at an English Medium University in Turkey. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 969–975. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.136

Al-hamlan, S., & Baniabdelrahman, A. A. (2015). A Needs Analysis Approach to EFL Syllabus Development for Second Grade Students in Secondary Education in Saudi Arabia: A Descriptive Analytical Approach to Students’ Needs. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 5(1), 118–145.

Al-Hamlan, S., & Baniabdelrahman, A. A. (2015). A Needs Analysis Approach to EFL Syllabus Development for Second Grade Students in Secondary Education in Saudi Arabia: A Descriptive Analytical Approach to Students’ Needs. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 5(1), 118–145.

Al-Qahtani, H. M. (2015). Teachers’ Voice: A Needs Analysis of Teachers’ Needs for Professional Development with the Emergence of the Current English Textbooks. English Language Teaching, 8(8), 128–141. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v6n8p128

Alastal, A. A. (2012). Investigating the Academic English Language Target Needs of Undergraduates at the Faculty of Applied Science at Al-Aqsa University: Students’ Perceptions. The ASIAN ESP Journal, 8(2), 5–26. Retrieved from http://www.dt.co.kr/contents.html?article_no=2012071302010531749001

Ali, H. I. H., & Salih, A. R. A. (2013). Perceived Views of Language Teachers on the Use of Needs Analysis in ESP Materials Writing. English Language Teaching, 6(3), 11–19. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v6n3p11

Aliakbari, M., & Boghayeri, M. (2014). A Needs Analysis Approach to ESP Design in Iranian Context. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 175–181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.404

Alonazi, S. M. (2017). The Role of Teachers in Promoting Learner Autonomy in Secondary Schools in Saudi Arabia. English Language Teaching, 10(7), 183–202. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v10n7p183

Alqunayeer, H. S., & Zamir, S. (2016). Needs Analysis of Saudi EFL Female Students : A Case Study of Qassim University. Journal of Curriculum and Teaching, 5(1), 87–104. https://doi.org/10.5430/jct.v5n1p87

Alsamadani, H. A. (2017). Needs Analysis in ESP Context: Saudi Engineering Students as a Case Study. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 8(6), 58–68. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.alls.v.8n.6p.58

Amin, M., Arifuddin, & Nurahmadi. (2017). Pragmatic Competence and Learning Needs of English for Students of Tourism Vocational Schools in Nusa Tenggara Barat Province. International Journal of Educational Policy Research and Review, 4(4), 53–61. https://doi.org/10.15739/IJEPRR.17.007

Astika, G. (1999). The Role of Needs Analysis in English for Specific Purposes. TEFLIN, 10(1), 31–47.

Atai, M. R., & Shoja, L. (2011). A Triangulated Study of Academic Language Needs of Iranian Students of Computer Engineering: Are the Courses on Track? RELC Journal, 42(3), 305–323. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688211419392

Basturkmen, H. (2010). Developing Courses in English for Specific Purposes. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230290518

Bedoya, P. A., Valencia, L. M., & Montoya, J. C. (2015). Students’ Needs Analysis in an EFL Program for University Professors. How, 22(2), 11–36. https://doi.org/10.19183/how.22.2.118

Benavent, G. T., & Sánchez-Reyes, S. (2015). Target Situation as a Key Element for ESP (Law Enforcement) Syllabus Design. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 173(2015), 143–148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.02.044

Bogdan, R. C., & Biklen, S. K. (2007). Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theory and Methods (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

Boroujeni, S. A., & Fard, F. M. (2013). A Needs Analysis of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) Course for Adoption of Communicative Language Teaching: (A Case of Iranian First-Year Students of Educational Administration ). International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, 2(6), 35–44.

Bosher, S., & Smalkoski, K. (2002). From Needs Analysis to Curriculum Development: Designing a Course in Health-care Communication for Immigrant Students in the USA. English for Specific Purposes, 21, 59–79.

Bosuwon, T., & Woodrow, L. (2009). Developing a Problem-Based Course Based on Need Analysis to Enhance English Reading Ability of Thai Undergraduates Students. RELC Journal, 40(1), 42–64. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688208101453

Brown, J. D. (2009). Foreign and Second Language Need Analysis. In M. H. Long & C. J. Doughty (Eds.), The Handbook of Language Teaching (pp. 269–293). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Chen, I.-J., Chang, Y.-H., & Chang, W.-H. (2016). I Learn What I Need: Needs Analysis of English Learning in Taiwan. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 4(1), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2016.040101

Chostelidou, D. (2010). A Needs Analysis Approach to ESP Syllabus Design in Greek Tertiary Education: A Descriptive Account of Students’ Needs. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 4507–4512. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.721

Cowling, J. D. (2007). Needs Analysis : Planning a Syllabus for a Series of Intensive Workplace Courses at a Leading Japanese Company. English for Specific Purposes, 26, 426–442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2006.10.003

Elsaid Mohammed, A. S., & Nur, H. S. M. (2018). Needs Analysis in English for Academic Purposes : The Case of Teaching Assistants at the University of Khartoum. How, 25(2), 49–68. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.19183/ how.25.2.409.

Esfandiari, R. (2015). An Investigation into ESAP Needs of Iranian BA Students of Law. The Journal of Teaching Langauage Skills (JTLS), 7(3), 29–59.

Eslami, Z. R. (2010). Teachers’ Voice vs. Students’ Voice: A Needs Analysis Approach of English for Acadmic Purposes (EAP) in Iran. English Language Teaching, 3(1), 3–11. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v3n1p3

Fadel, S., & Rajab, H. (2017). Investigating the English Language Needs of the Female Students at the Faculty of Computing and Information Technology at King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia. English Language Teaching, 10(6), 69–82. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v10n6p69

Fard-Kashani, A., & Jahromi, A. H. Z. (2015). Language Needs Analysis of Iranian Undergraduate Students of Computer Engineering: A Study of Reading Skill. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 6(5). https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.alls.v.6n.5p.167

Flowerdew, L. (2013). Needs Analysis and Curriculum Development in ESP. In B. Paltridge & S. Starfield (Eds.), The Handbook of English for Specific Purposes (1st ed., pp. 325–346). West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118339855

Ghany, S. Y. A., & Latif, M. M. A. (2012). English Language Preparation of Tourism and Hospitality Undergraduates in Egypt: Does It Meet their Future Workplace Requirements? Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 11(2012), 93–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhlste.2012.05.001

Guiyu, D., & Yang, L. (2016). An Empirical Study on Business English Teaching and Development in China - A Needs Analysis Approach. Higher Education Studies, 6(2), 142–153. https://doi.org/10.5539/hes.v6n2p142

Hutchinson, T., & Waters, A. (1987). Needs analysis. In English for Specific Purposes: A Learning-centred Approach (pp. 53–64). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511733031.010

Juan, L. I. (2014). Literature Review of the Classifications of “Needs” in Needs Analysis Theory. International Journal of Education & Literacy Studies, 2(3), 12–16. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.2n.3p.12

Kayiran, D., & Bağçeci, B. (2018). Needs Analysis on Values Education Programme for Preschool Students. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 6(10), 69–73. https://doi.org/10.11114/jets.v6i10.3538

Kazar, S. G., & Mede, E. (2015). The Perceptions of ESP Students’ Target Needs: A Case Study. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 191(2015), 2526–2530. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.574

Kim, H. H. (2013). Needs Analysis for English for Specific Purpose course Development for Engineering Students in Korea. International Journal of Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering, 8(6), 279–288. https://doi.org/10.14257/ijmue.2013.8.6.28

Kudryashova, A., Gorbatova, T., Rybushkina, S., & Ivanova, E. (2015). Teacher’s Roles to Facilitate Active Learning. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 7(1), 460–466. https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n1p460

Kuo, S. (2016). Target Needs Analysis of Tertiary-level English for Specific Purposes Curriculum Design from the Perspective of Taiwan ’ s Business Community. Jounal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 3(1), 36–53.

Lee, C. (2016). Principles and Practices of ESP Course Design — A Case Study of a University of Science and Technology. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 15(2), 94–105.

Li, J. (2014). Needs Analysis of Business English Undergraduates and the Implications to Business English Curriculum Design. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 5(4), 33–37. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.alls.v.5n.4p.33

Liton, H. A. (2012). Developing EFL Teaching and Learning Practices in Saudi Colleges: a Review. International Journal of Instruction July, 5(2), 1694–609.

Liu, J., Chang, Y., Yang, F., & Sun, Y. (2011). Is What I Need What I Want? Reconceptualising College Students ’ Needs in English Courses for General and Specific/Academic Purposes. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 10(4), 271–280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2011.09.002

Long, M. H. (2005). Methodological Issues in Learner Need Analysis. In M. H. Long (Ed.), Second Language Need Analysis (pp. 19–78). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667299

Lu, Y. (2018). What do Nurses Say about their English Language Needs for Patient Care and their ESP Coursework : The Case of Taiwanese Nurses. English for Specific Purposes, 50(2018), 116–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2017.12.004

Mohammadi, V., & Mousavi, N. (2013). Analyzing Needs Analysis in ESP: A (re)modeling. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 4(5), 1014–1020.

Moiinvaziri, M. (2014). Students’ Voice : A Needs Analysis of University General English Course in Iran. GEMA Online, 14(1), 57–75.

Moslemi, F., Moinzadeh, A., & Dabaghi, A. (2011). ESP Needs Analysis of Iranian MA Students : A Case Study of the University of Isfahan. English Language Teaching, 4(4), 121–129. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v4n4p121

Nimasari, E. P. (2018). An ESP Needs Analysis: Addressing the Needs of English for Informatics Engineering. Journal of Educators Society, 3(1), 23–40. https://doi.org/10.21070/jees.v3i1.1085

Orr, T. (2001). English Language Education for Specific Professional Needs. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 44(3), 207–211. https://doi.org/10.1109/47.946467

Peters, P., & Fernández, T. (2013). The Lexical Needs of ESP Students in a Professional Field. English for Specific Purposes, 32(4), 236–247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2013.05.002

Poedjiastutie, D., & Oliver, R. (2017). Exploring Students’ Learning Needs: Expectation and Challenges. English Language Teaching, 10(10), 124–133. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v10n10p124

Prachanant, N. (2012). Needs Analysis on English Language Use in Tourism Industry. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 66(2012), 117–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.11.253

Rahman, M. (2015). English for Specific Purposes ( ESP ): A Holistic Review. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 3(1), 24–31. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2015.030104

Read, J. (2008). Identifying academic language needs through diagnostic assessment. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 7(3), 180–190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2008.02.001

Sabarun. (2019). Needs Analysis on Developing EFL Paragraph Writing Materials at Kalimantan L2 learners. English Language Teaching, 12(1), 186–193. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v12n1p186

Salam, S. (2017). Developing Needs Analysis Based-Reading Comprehension Learning Materials: A Study on the Indonesian Language Study Program Students. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 8(4), 105–113.

Salehi, H., Davari, A., & Yunus, M. M. (2015). English Language Needs Analysis of Qur’anic Sciences and Tradition Students in Iran. English Language Teaching, 8(6), 50–56. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v8n6p50

Serafini, E. J., Lake, J. B., & Long, M. H. (2015). Needs analysis for Specialized Learner Populations : Essential Methodological Improvements. English for Specific Purposes, 40(2015), 11–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2015.05.002

Tzotzou, M. D. (2014). Designing and Administering a Needs Analysis Survey to Primary School Learners about EFL Learning: A Case Study. Preschool & Primary Education, 2(1), 59–82. https://doi.org/10.12681/ppej.62

Ulum, Ö. G. (2015). A Need Analysis Study for Preparatory Class ELT Students. European Journal of English Language Teaching, 1(1), 14–29.

Ulum, Ö. G. (2016). ESP Need Analysis of Public Order Police Officers. International Online Journal of Education and Teaching (IOJET), 4(1), 19–30. Retrieved from http://iojet.org/index.php/IOJET/article/view/147/147

Vogt, K., & Kantelinen, R. (2013). Vocationally Oriented Language Learning Revisited. ELT Journal, 67(1), 62–69. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccs049

Widodo, H. P. (2006). Approaches and Procedures for Teaching Grammar. English Teaching: Practice and Critique, 5(1), 122–141. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

Widodo, H. P. (2015). The Development of Vocational English Materials from a Social Semiotic Perspective : Participatory Action Research. University of Adelaide. Retrieved from https://digital.library.adelaide.edu.au/dspace/bitstream/2440/97910/2/02whole.pdf

Widodo, H. P. (2016). Teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP): English for Vocational Purposes (EVP). In W. A. Renandya & H. P. Widodo (Eds.), English Language Teaching Today: Linking Theory and Practice (pp. 277–291). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-38834-2_19

Wu, Y. (2012). An Empirical Study on Needs Analysis of College Business English Course. International Education Studies, 5(2), 216–221. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v5n2p216

Zhu, W., & Liu, D. (2014). Study on the Theoretical Foundation of Business English Curriculum Design Based on ESP and Needs Analysis. Higher Education Studies, 4(1), 68–74. https://doi.org/10.5539/hes.v4n1p68

DOI: https://doi.org/10.30762/jeels.v5i2.835


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
JEELS by IAIN Kediri is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://jurnal.iainkediri.ac.id/index.php/jeels.

View My Stats

Indexed in:

Flag Counter